Ytterbium is soft, malleable and quite ductile element with an appearance of bright silvery luster. The metal is a fire and explosion hazard. Ytterbium is a silvery, lustrous metal that is soft, malleable and ductile. Atomic Number: 71. While some scientists believed that these inconsistent results were caused by poor procedures or faulty equipment, Georges Urbain, a French chemist, believed that ytterbium wasn't an element at all, but a mixture of two elements. In 1878 Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac, a Swiss chemist, discovered that erbia was itself consisted of two components. 70 Yb Ytterbium 173.045. Ytterbium dissolves slowly in water, but quickly in acids, liberating hydrogen gas. Group Number: 3. Total number of protons in the nucleus is called the atomic number of the atom and is given the symbol Z. Element Classification: Metal. [55] Metallic ytterbium dust can spontaneously combust,[56] and the resulting fumes are hazardous. [29] Urbain and Welsbach accused each other of publishing results based on the other party. [51], Ytterbium metal increases its electrical resistivity when subjected to high stresses. Number of protons in Ytterbium is 70. 4f14. Like europium, samarium, and thulium, the trihalides of ytterbium can be reduced to the dihalides by hydrogen, zinc dust, or by the addition of metallic ytterbium. Ytterbium is pronounced as i-TUR-bee-em. For questions about this page, please contact Steve Gagnon. The primary decay mode of ytterbium isotopes lighter than the most abundant stable isotope, 174Yb, is electron capture, and the primary decay mode for those heavier than 174Yb is beta decay. [35] The clocks developed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) rely on about 10,000 rare-earth atoms cooled to 10 microkelvin (10 millionths of a degree above absolute zero) and trapped in an optical lattice—a series of pancake-shaped wells made of laser light. Chemists eventually changed the name neoytterbium back to ytterbium and changed the spelling of lutecium to lutetium. Specialties: Syracuse Media Group is a digitally-focused news and information company serving Central New York. While examining samples of gadolinite, Marignac found a new component in the earth then known as erbia, and he named it ytterbia, for Ytterby, the Swedish village near where he found the new component of erbium. This effect may be related with not only overheating, but also with conditions of charge compensation at high concentrations of ytterbium ions.[47]. Ytterbium lasers are highly efficient, have long lifetimes and can generate short pulses; ytterbium can also easily be incorporated into the material used to make the laser. Finely dispersed ytterbium readily oxidizes in air and under oxygen. 169Yb is also used in nuclear medicine.[34]. Ytterbium. It is quite stable in air; rapid oxidation begins above approximately 450 °C (840 °F), resulting in Y2O3. [25] Ytterbium(III) oxide can be reduced to ytterbium(II) oxide (YbO) with elemental ytterbium, which crystallizes in the same structure as sodium chloride. The metal is extracted from the solution as oxalate and converted to oxide by heating. A relatively pure sample of the metal was not obtained until 1953. Ytterbium also has 12 meta states, with the most stable being 169mYb (t1/2 46 seconds). For questions about home delivery of The Post-Standard or digital support for ePost-Standard: Email: subscriberservices@syracuse.com or. Once extracted and prepared, ytterbium is somewhat hazardous as an eye and skin irritant. Ytterbium is present along with several rare minerals. Yttrium is almost always found in combination with lanthanide elements in rare-earth minerals, and is never found in nature as a free element. What's in a name? Because of its closed-shell electron configuration, its density and melting and boiling points differ significantly from those of most other lanthanides. Mixtures of powdered ytterbium with polytetrafluoroethylene or hexachloroethane burn with a luminous emerald-green flame. It is a rare earth element, and it is readily dissolved by the strong mineral acids. In aqueous solution, like compounds of other late lanthanides, soluble ytterbium compounds form complexes with nine water molecules. Ruthenium is a chemical element with symbol Ru and atomic number 44. [43][44], Usually, low concentrations of ytterbium are used. [23] Ytterbium(III) fluoride (YbF3) is used as an inert and non-toxic tooth filling as it continuously releases fluoride ions, which are good for dental health, and is also a good X-ray contrast agent. Thus, small 169Yb samples (which emit gamma rays) act like tiny X-ray machines useful for radiography of small objects. Ytterbium has a density of 6.973 g/cm3, which is significantly lower than those of the neighboring lanthanides, thulium (9.32 g/cm3) and lutetium (9.841 g/cm3). For general information and assistance: Phone: 315-470-0011 To request an Obituary Keepsake Email: Extras@syracuse.com; For questions about syracuse.com: Email: feedback@syracuse.com For marketing services: Contact the Marketing … Call: 315-470-6397. It is common substitute to yttrium minerals. In 1907, the French chemist Georges Urbain separated Marignac's ytterbia into two components: neoytterbia and lutecia. This behavior is unusual for lanthanides, which almost exclusively form compounds with an oxidation state of +3. Ytterbium can then be separated from other lanthanides by ion exchange, as can other lanthanides. It is the fourteenth and penultimate element in the lanthanide series, which is the basis of the relative stability of its +2 oxidation state. [9] The +2 oxidation state occurs only in solid compounds and reacts in some ways similarly to the alkaline earth metal compounds; for example, ytterbium(II) oxide (YbO) shows the same structure as calcium oxide (CaO). [22] Ytterbium(II) iodide (YbI2) may be used, like samarium(II) iodide, as a reducing agent for coupling reactions. [10] The price of ytterbium was relatively stable between 1953 and 1998 at about US$1,000/kg. Ytterbium abundance in earth crust is about 3 mg/kg. Click any property name to see plots of that property for all the elements. [14][15], Ytterbium is found with other rare earth elements in several rare minerals. The primary decay products of ytterbium isotopes lighter than 174Yb are thulium isotopes, and the primary decay products of ytterbium isotopes with heavier than 174Yb are lutetium isotopes. Ytterbium has a melting point of 809 C, and boiling point of 1196 C. The element has a density of 6.9 grams per cubic centimetre. Ytterbium is a soft, malleable and ductile chemical element that displays a bright silvery luster when pure. A report of native ytterbium from the Moon's regolith is known. Yttrium is a chemical element with atomic number 39 which means there are 39 protons in its nucleus. [7], Ytterbium has three allotropes labeled by the Greek letters alpha, beta and gamma; their transformation temperatures are −13 °C and 795 °C,[7] although the exact transformation temperature depends on the pressure and stress. NIST physicists reported in the August 22, 2013 issue of Science Express that the ytterbium clocks' ticks are stable to within less than two parts in 1 quintillion (1 followed by 18 zeros), roughly 10 times better than the previous best published results for other atomic clocks. This silver-colored rare earth element is one of several elements discovered from ores from a quarry in Ytterby, Sweden. Its melting and boiling points are also significantly lower than those of thulium and lutetium. The abundance of ytterbium in the Earth's crust is about 3 mg/kg. Phase at Room Temperature: Solid. Ytterbium is an element of the periodic table with an atomic number of 70, discovered by Jean de Marignac in the year 1878. [30] After Urbain's names were recognized, neoytterbium was reverted to ytterbium. Most ytterbium compounds are found in the +3 oxidation state, and its salts in this oxidation state are nearly colorless. The total electrical charge of the nucleus is therefore +Ze, where e (elementary charge) equals to 1,602 x 10-19 coulombs. Yttrium is a silvery white, moderately soft, ductile metal. At present, ytterbium is mainly used as a dopant of stainless steel or active laser media, and less often as a gamma ray source. It is a silvery-metallic transition metal chemically similar to the lanthanides and has often been classified as a "rare-earth element". The element is named after Ytterby, Sweden. As a result, the process is somewhat long. Sources, facts, uses, scarcity (SRI), podcasts, alchemical symbols, videos and images. The large number of atoms is key to the clocks' high stability. It can be alloyed with stainless steel to improve some of its mechanical properties and used as a doping agent in fiber optic cable where it can be used as an amplifier. [36] One of ytterbium's isotopes is being considered as a radiation source for portable X-ray machines. Unfortunately, different scientists obtained different results from the same experiments. The chemical symbol for Ytterbium is Yb . What's in a name? In 1907, Urbain was able to separate ytterbium into two elements. [10], As an even-numbered lanthanide, in accordance with the Oddo-Harkins rule, ytterbium is significantly more abundant than its immediate neighbors, thulium and lutetium, which occur in the same concentrate at levels of about 0.5% each. It is a rare transition metal belonging to the platinum group of the periodic table.Like the other metals of the platinum group, ruthenium is inert to most other chemicals. In 1878, the Swiss chemist Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac separated from the rare earth "erbia" another independent component, which he called "ytterbia", for Ytterby, the village in Sweden near where he found the new component of erbium. Power levels have increased from the 1 kW regimes due to the advancements in components as well as the Yb-doped fibers. Ytterbium has few uses. It is a white silvery, soft, ductile and rare earth metal. [53], Although ytterbium is fairly stable chemically, it is stored in airtight containers and in an inert atmosphere such as a nitrogen-filled dry box to protect it from air and moisture. At high concentrations, the ytterbium-doped materials show photodarkening[45] Much progress has been made in the power scaling lasers and amplifiers produced with ytterbium (Yb) doped optical fibers. [7][10], The Yb3+ ion is used as a doping material in active laser media, specifically in solid state lasers and double clad fiber lasers. The optical clock based on it is exact to 17 digits after the decimal point. It reacts slowly with cold water and it oxidizes slowly in air. [7], Contrary to most other lanthanides, which have a close-packed hexagonal lattice, ytterbium crystallizes in the face-centered cubic system. This property is used in stress gauges to monitor ground deformations from earthquakes and explosions. Phase at Room Temperature: Solid. Phone. Contacts. [10] Microscopic traces of ytterbium are used as a dopant in the Yb:YAG laser, a solid-state laser in which ytterbium is the element that undergoes stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation. Ytterbium Yb (Element 70) of Periodic Table. Atomic number: 70: Group numbers: 3: Period: 6: Electronic configuration: [Xe] 4f 14 6s 2: Formal oxidation number: +2 +3: Electronegativities:-Atomic radius / pm: 194: Relative atomic mass: 173.054(5) Marignac suspected that ytterbia was a compound of a new element that he called "ytterbium".[10][24][26][27][28]. Overview. This is then dissolved using complexing agents, and due to the different types of bonding exhibited by the different lanthanides, it is possible to isolate the compounds. Reserves of ytterbium are estimated as one million tonnes. Atomic Number. Yttrium is a chemical element with the symbol Y and atomic number 39. Ytterbium was discovered by Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac in 1878, in Geneva, Switzerland.He heated erbium nitrate until it decomposed and then extracted the residue, which contained an unknown white powder that he named ytterbium oxide (ytterbia). Urbain named one of the elements neoytterbium (new ytterbium) and the other element lutecium. Power scaling also requires optimization of matching passive fibers within the optical cavity. Element Classification: Metal. The metal is purified by sublimation and collected over a condensed plate. Group Number: none. Ytterbium is a chemical element with the symbol Yb and atomic number 70. [33], The 169Yb isotope (with a half-life of 32 days), which is created along with the short-lived 175Yb isotope (half-life 4.2 days) by neutron activation during the irradiation of ytterbium in nuclear reactors, has been used as a radiation source in portable X-ray machines. Samarium and thulium also behave this way in the +2 state, but europium(II) is stable in aqueous solution. Period Number: 6. Ytterbium is normally difficult to separate from other rare earths, but ion-exchange and solvent extraction techniques developed in the mid- to late 20th century have simplified separation. [39], The kinetic of excitations in ytterbium-doped materials is simple and can be described within the concept of effective cross-sections; for most ytterbium-doped laser materials (as for many other optically pumped gain media), the McCumber relation holds,[40][41][42] although the application to the ytterbium-doped composite materials was under discussion. It is also found in euxenite and xenotime (phosphate mineral). Other chemists produced and experimented with ytterbium in an attempt to determine some of it's properties. [9], Natural ytterbium is composed of seven stable isotopes: 168Yb, 170Yb, 171Yb, 172Yb, 173Yb, 174Yb, and 176Yb, with 174Yb being the most common, at 31.8% of the natural abundance). Order Now and get the best Isotops. However, ytterbium compounds cause irritation to human skin and eyes, and some might be teratogenic. Here you will find forms, contact information, answers to common questions and more. [8] The beta allotrope (6.966 g/cm3) exists at room temperature, and it has a face-centered cubic crystal structure. He suspected that ytterbia was a compound of a new element that he called "ytterbium" (in total, four elements were named after the village, the others being yttrium, terbium, and erbium). 8773427775 Monday - Friday 8:30 AM - 4:30 PM . What Mosander called erbia is now called terbia and visa versa. It is attacked by the strong acids and reacts slowly with cold water and air. The melting point of ytterbium is 1,097 degrees Kelvin … Technical data for Ytterbium. Melting Point: 1936 K (1663°C or 3025°F) Boiling Point: 3675 K (3402°C or 6156°F) Density: 9.84 grams per cubic centimeter. Ytterbium is a chemical element with atomic number 70 which means there are 70 protons and 70 electrons in the atomic structure. Ytterbium is element number 70 with an element symbol Yb. Natural ytterbium is a mixture of seven stable isotopes, which altogether are present at concentrations of 0.3 parts per million. Equitable Benefit Payment Services Group, … The metal readily reacts with diluted [20], The chemical behavior of ytterbium is similar to that of the rest of the lanthanides. The atomic number of ytterbium is 70. 70 Yb (Ytterbium) Flashcard of Ytterbium. [16], Ytterbium is often the most common substitute in yttrium minerals. Fabrication of Low NA, Large Mode Area fibers enable achievement of near perfect beam qualities (M2<1.1) at power levels of 1.5 kW to greater than 2 kW at ~1064 nm in a broadband configuration. Ytterbium: description. (1), (2)In 1907, in Paris, George Urbain separated ytterbia into two constituents. 70: Ytterbium - Ytterbium [Yb] Group: 3 Period: 6 Atomic number: 70 Atomic mass: 173.054 Configuration: [Xe] 4f 14 6s 2 Atomic radius: 222 pm Covalent radius: 187 pm The dihalides are susceptible to oxidation to the trihalides at room temperature and disproportionate to the trihalides and metallic ytterbium at high temperature:[9], Some ytterbium halides are used as reagents in organic synthesis. The model with one single ytterbium ion caught in an ion trap is highly accurate. Atomic Number: 70. Atomic Number 70 is belong to element of Ytterbium.. Chemical symbol for Ytterbium is Yb. [48] Ytterbium-doped LMA fibers also have the advantages of a larger mode field diameter, which negates the impacts of nonlinear effects such as stimulated Brillouin scattering and stimulated Raman scattering, which limit the achievement of higher power levels, and provide a distinct advantage over single mode ytterbium-doped fibers. This element is mined in China, the United States, Brazil, and India in form of the minerals monazite, euxenite, and xenotime. Name. Ytterbium. Element Ytterbium (Yb), Group 19, Atomic Number 70, f-block, Mass 173.045. In order to achieve even higher power levels in ytterbium-based fiber systems. For example, ytterbium(III) chloride (YbCl3) is a Lewis acid and can be used as a catalyst in the Aldol[21] and Diels–Alder reactions. (Ytterbium) Symbol (Yb) Number (70) Group Number (NA) Group (Rare Earth, Lanthanides) Block (f) Density (6.98 g/cm3) Atomic Weight (173.04 g/mol) Atomic Volume (24.79 cm3/mol) Discover (1879) Yb. The chemical and physical properties of ytterbium could not be determined with any precision until 1953, when the first nearly pure ytterbium metal was produced by using ion-exchange processes. [38] Ytterbium lasers commonly radiate in the 1.06–1.12 µm band being optically pumped at wavelength 900 nm–1 µm, dependently on the host and application. Because of its closed-shell electron configurati… Because of its closed-shell electron configuration, its density and melting and boiling points differ significantly from those of most other lanthanides. The ytterbium concentration is low because it is found only among many other rare earth elements; moreover, it is among the least abundant. The yellow-green ytterbium(II) ion is a very strong reducing agent and decomposes water, releasing hydrogen gas, and thus only the colorless ytterbium(III) ion occurs in aqueous solution. [7] The alpha allotrope (6.903 g/cm3) has a hexagonal crystalline structure and is stable at low temperatures. 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